The Library of Con­gress hosts a digital version of Konrad Miller’s “restoration” of Al-Idrīsī’s Map of 1154. As it is well known, the south is at the top of the map, and the north is at the bottom. Likewise, the east is at on the left side, and the west on the right side. This is an “inverted” map in relation to common rep­re­sen­ta­tions of the car­dinal points. However, a medieval map is more often than not an hor­i­zontal device, and the reader moves around the map to read it in many direc­tions. But it is true that this map was con­ceived to be read from the north (bottom), as the script is ori­ented that way.

Idrīsī, Approx­i­mately, and Konrad Miller. Weltkarte des Idrisi vom Jahrn. Ch., Charta Roge­riana. Stuttgart: Konrad Miller, 1928. Map. Retrieved from the Library of Con­gress, <www​.loc​.gov/​i​t​e​m​/​2​0​0​7​6​2​6​7​89/>.